United States Ninth Circuit

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Hicks v. PGA Tour, Inc., 16-15370

Affirmed in part and vacated in part the dismissal of antitrust and state law claims of golf caddies who participated in the PGA Tour, who were required to wear bibs containing advertisements. The court reasoned that the caddies consented to wearing the bibs when they filled out the participation form and that they had not alleged plausible product markets to support antitrust claims. The court, however, vacated the decision to deny leave to amend caddies’ complaint.

Appellate Information

  • Decided
  • Published 2018/07/27


  • Sidney


  • United States Ninth Circuit