United States Ninth Circuit

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Perfect 10, Inc. v. Amazon.com, Inc., 06-55405

In a copyright infringement action brought against Google and Amazon.com, an order enjoining Google from creating and publicly displaying thumbnail versions of plaintiff's images is vacated where a determination that Google's thumbnail images likely constituted a direct infringement required reversal, as plaintiff was unlikely to succeed in overcoming Google's fair use defense. However, a holding that plaintiff was unlikely to succeed on the merits of its secondary liability claims required reversal, as well, because the district court erred in analyzing the issue by failing to consider whether defendants knew of infringing activities yet failed to take reasonable and feasible steps to refrain from providing access to infringing images. Consequently, the matter is remanded for further proceedings.

Appellate Information

  • Argued 11/15/2006
  • Submitted 11/15/2006
  • Decided 05/16/2007
  • Published 05/16/2007


  • IKUTA, Circuit Judge:, Before:  CYNTHIA HOLCOMB HALL, HAWKINS, and SANDRA S. IKUTA, Circuit Judges.


  • United States Ninth Circuit


  • For Appellant:
  • Russell J. Frackman and Jeffrey D. Goldman, Mitchell, Silberberg & Knupp LLP, Los Angeles, CA, Jeffrey N. Mausner, Berman, Mausner & Resser, Los Angeles, CA, Daniel J. Cooper, Perfect 10, Inc., Beverly Hills, CA, for plaintiff-appellant Perfect 10, Inc., Fred von Lohmann, Electronic Frontier Foundation, San Francisco, CA, for amicus curiae Electronic Frontier Foundation, American Library Association, Medical Library Association, American Association of Law Libraries, Association of Research Libraries, and Special Libraries Association in support of Google Inc., Victor S. Perlman, of counsel, American Society of Media Photographers;  Nancy E. Wolff, of counsel, Cowan, DeBaets, Abrahams & Sheppard, LLP;  Robert W. Clarida and Jason D. Sanders, Cowan, Liebowitz & Latman, P.C., New York, NY, for amicus curiae American Society of Media Photographers, Inc., Picture Archive Council of America, Inc., British Association of Picture Libraries and Agencies, Inc., Stock Artists Alliance, The Graphic Artists Guild, American Society of Picture Professionals and National Press Photographers, in support of Perfect 10 on issue of Google's liability for the display of full-size images., Eric J. Schwartz and Steven J. Metalitz, Smith & Metalitz LLP, Washington, DC, for amicus curiae Motion Picture Association of America, Inc. in support of Perfect 10., Jonathan Band, Jonathan Band PLLC, Washington, DC, for amicus curiae NetCoalition, Computer and Communications Industry Association, U.S. Internet Service Provider Association, Consumer Electronics Association, Home Recording Rights Coalition, Information Technology Association of America, and Internet Commerce Coalition in support of Google Inc., Kenneth L. Doroshow and Linda J. Zirkelbach, Recording Industry Association of America, Washington, DC;  Jacqueline C. Charlesworth, National Music Publishers' Association, Washington, DC;  Robert W. Clarida, Richard S. Mandel and Jonathan Z. King, Cowan, Liebowitz & Latman, P.C., New York, NY, for amicus curiae Recording Industry Association of America and National Music Publishers' Association in support of neither party.

  • For Appellees:
  • Andrew P. Bridges and Jennifer A. Golinveaux, Winston & Strawn LLP, San Francisco, CA, Gene C. Schaerr, Winston & Strawn LLP, Washington, DC, for defendant-appellee and cross-appellant Google Inc., Mark T. Jansen & Anthony J. Malutta, Townsend and Townsend and Crew LLP, San Francisco, CA, for defendants-appellees Amazon.com and A9.com, Inc.
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