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United States Fourth Circuit

Wikimedia Foundation v. NSA/CSS, 15-2560

In a complaint challenging Upstream surveillance, an electronic surveillance program operated by the National Security Agency pursuant to the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA), 50 U.S.C. section 1801 et seq., the district court's dismissal of the complaint on grounds that the allegations in the complaint were too speculative to establish Article III standing, under Clapper v. Amnesty International USA, 133 S. Ct. 1138 (2013), is: 1) vacated as to Wikimedia-plaintiff where Clapper's analysis of speculative injury does not control this case, since the central allegations here are not speculative, and plaintiff's allegations are sufficient to survive a facial challenge to standing; and 2) affirmed as to the other plaintiffs because the complaint does not contain enough well-pleaded facts entitled to the presumption of truth to establish their standing.

Appellate Information

  • Decided
  • Published 2017/05/23


  • DIAZ


  • United States Fourth Circuit


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