The District Court's holding that a Connecticut statute requiring that mothers of illegitimate children, as a condition to receiving Aid to Families with Dependent Children benefits, disclose to appellant Commissioner of Social Services the names of the children's fathers, was valid provided that the state authorities first determine, in accordance with 402 (a) of the Social Security Act, that appellee mothers of illegitimate children did not have "good cause" for refusing to disclose the fathers' names, taking into account the "best interests of the child," is vacated, and the case is remanded in light of an intervening amendment to the Connecticut statute so that the District Court can clarify whether appellant is free to make his own "good cause" and "best interests of the child" determinations in the absence of effective regulations of the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare.
414 F. Supp. 1368, vacated and remanded.
The motion of appellees for leave to proceed in forma pauperis is granted.
Appellees are mothers of illegitimate children who receive welfare benefits from the State of Connecticut under the Aid to Families with Dependent Children program administered for the Federal Government by the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare (HEW). They are prosecuting this litigation to challenge the constitutionality of 52-440b, Conn. Gen. Stat. Ann. (1977), which would require them, under pain of contempt, to divulge to appellant the names of the fathers of their children.
In 1975, after a three-judge District Court upheld the constitutionality of 52-440b, we vacated the judgment and remanded for further consideration in light of an intervening [432 U.S. 526, 527] amendment to 402 (a) of the Social Security Act, * and, if a relevant state proceeding was pending, in light of Younger v. Harris, 401 U.S. 37 (1971), and Huffman v. Pursue, Ltd., 420 U.S. 592 (1975). Roe v. Norton, 422 U.S. 391 .
On remand the District Court held that the Younger/Huffman doctrine did not prohibit the issuance of an injunction in this case. 414 F. Supp. 1368 (Conn. 1976). The court also held that 52-440b remained valid provided the Connecticut welfare authorities first determine, in accordance with 402 (a) of the federal statute, that the appellees did not have "good cause" for refusing to cooperate, under standards which take into account the "best interests of the child." 414 F. Supp., at 1381.
Noting that the Secretary of HEW has not yet promulgated regulations defining "good cause" and "best interests of the child," appellant reads the District Court's opinion as enjoining any state proceedings under 52-440b until such guidance is forthcoming. But the court's opinion contains the following passage in a footnote:
The day after the District Court issued its opinion on remand a new Connecticut statute became effective, 1976 Conn. Pub. Act No. 76-334, amending Conn. Gen. Stat. Ann. 17-82b. In pertinent part that statute provides:
Therefore, we must once again vacate the judgment of the District Court and remand this case. That court must now consider its interpretation of 52-440b in light of the amendment to 17-82b, and clarify whether appellant is free to make his own "good cause" and "best interests of the child" determinations in the absence of effective HEW regulations.
[ Footnote * ] Pub. L. 93-647, 88 Stat. 2359, amending 42 U.S.C. 602 (a) (26) (1970 ed., Supp. V). The District Court also considered a second, subsequent, change in 402 (a), Pub. L. 94-88, 89 Stat. 436.