United States Federal Circuit

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In Re Bilski, 2007-1130

In an appeal of the rejection of a patent application for a claimed method of hedging risk in commodities trading, a Board of Patent Appeals and Interferences decision sustaining the rejection is affirmed by the court sitting en banc where: 1) a claimed process is patent-eligible if it is either tied to a particular machine or apparatus, or it transforms a particular article into a different state or thing; and 2) applicants' proposed process was neither tied to a particular machine nor transformative of any physical article, and was therefore not eligible for patent protection.

Appellate Information

  • Decided 10/30/2008
  • Published 10/30/2008

Judges

  • Before MICHEL, Chief Judge, NEWMAN, MAYER, LOURIE, RADER, SCHALL, BRYSON, GAJARSA, LINN, DYK, PROST, and MOORE, Circuit Judges.

Court

  • United States Federal Circuit

Counsel

  • For Appellant:
  • David C. Hanson, The Webb Law Firm, of Pittsburgh, PA, argued for appellants.   With him on the brief were Richard L. Byrne and Nathan J. Prepelka., Raymond T. Chen, Associate Solicitor, Office of the Solicitor, United States Patent and Trademark Office, of Arlington, Virginia, argued for the Director of the United States Patent and Trademark Office.   With him on the brief were James A. Toupin, General Counsel, Stephen Walsh, Acting Solicitor, and Thomas W. Krause, Associate Solicitor.   Of counsel on the brief were Jeffrey S. Bucholtz, Acting Assistant Attorney General, John J. Fargo, Director, Intellectual Property Staff, Commercial Branch, and Scott R. McIntosh and Mark R. Freeman, Attorneys, Appellate Staff, Civil Division, United States Department of Justice, of Washington, DC., John F. Duffy, Fried, Frank, Harris, Shriver & Jacobson LLP, of Washington, DC, argued for amicus curiae Regulatory Datacorp, Inc. Of counsel on the brief were Thomas S. Biemer, Steven I. Wallach, and Philip J. Foret, Dilworth Paxson LLP, of Philadelphia, PA;  and John A. Squires, Goldman, Sachs & Co., of New York, NY., William F. Lee, Wilmer Cutler Pickering Hale and Dorr LLP, of Boston, Massachusetts, argued for amici curiae Financial Services Industry, Bank of America, et al., and for all other amici.   With him on the brief for Financial Services Industry, Bank of America, et al., were Randolph D. Moss, Donald R. Steinberg, and Felicia H. Ellsworth, and Seth P. Waxman, of Washington, DC., J. Michael Jakes, Finnegan, Henderson, Farabow, Garrett & Dunner, L.L.P., of Washington, DC, for amicus curiae Accenture.   With him on the brief were Erika H. Arner and Ronald E. Myrick, and Denise W. DeFranco, of Cambridge, MA. Of counsel on the brief was Wayne P. Sobon, Accenture, of San Jose, CA., Christopher A. Hansen, American Civil Liberties Union Foundation, of New York, NY, for amicus curiae American Civil Liberties Union., Kenneth C. Bass, III, Sterne, Kessler, Goldstein & Fox P.L.L.C., of Washington, DC, for amicus curiae American Express Company.   With him on the brief were Robert Greene Sterne and Michelle K. Holoubek.   Of counsel on the brief was Maxine Y. Graham, American Express Company, of New York, NY., Kelsey I. Nix, Willkie Farr & Gallagher LLP, of New York, NY, for amicus curiae American Institute of Certified Public Accountants.   With him on the brief was Heather M. Schneider., Meredith Martin Addy, Brinks Hofer Gilson & Lione, of Chicago, IL, for amicus curiae American Intellectual Property Law Association. With her on the briefs was Charles M. McMahon.   Of counsel on the briefs were James Pooley and Judith M. Saffer, American Intellectual Property Law Association, of Arlington, Virginia, and Denise W. DeFranco, Barbara A. Fiacco, James M. Flaherty, Jr., and Miriam Pogach, Foley Hoag LLP, of Boston, MA., Joseph A. Keyes, Jr., Association of American Medical Colleges, of Washington, DC, for amicus curiae Association of American Medical Colleges., Nancy J. Linck, Rothwell, Figg, Ernst & Manbeck, of Washington, DC, for amicus curiae Biotechnology Industry Organization.   With her on the brief were Minaksi Bhatt and R. Elizabeth Brenner-Leifer.   Of counsel on the brief was Hans Sauer, Biotechnology Industry Organization, of Washington, DC., Erik P. Belt, Bromberg and Sunstein LLP, of Boston, MA, for amicus curiae Boston Patent Law Association.   With him on the brief were John J. Stickevers and Jakub M. Michna.   Of counsel on the brief were Robert M. Abrahamsen, Steven J. Henry, and Ilan N. Barzilay, Wolf, Greenfield and Sacks, P.C., of Boston, MA., Andrew J. Pincus, Mayer Brown LLP, of Washington, DC, for amicus curiae The Business Software Alliance.   With him on the brief were Dan Himmelfarb and Brian D. Netter., Richard H. Stern, Kellogg, Huber, Hansen, Todd, Evans & Figel, P.L.L.C., of Washington, DC, for amicus curiae Center for Advanced Study and Research on Intellectual Property of the University of Washington School of Law., Dean Alderucci, CFPH, LLC, of New York, NY, for amicus curiae CFPH, LLC., Matthew Schruers, Computer & Communications Industry Association, of Washington, DC, for amicus curiae Computer & Communications Industry Association., Jason M. Schultz, University of California Berkeley School of Law, of Berkeley, CA, for amici curiae Consumers Union, et al., Carter G. Phillips, Sidley Austin LLP, of Washington, DC, for amici curiae Dell Inc., et al.   With him on the brief were Jeffrey P. Kushan, and Constantine L. Trela, Jr. and Richard A. Cederoth, of Chicago, IL., James J. Kelley, Eli Lilly and Company, of Indianapolis, IN, for amicus curiae Eli Lilly and Company.   With him on the brief were Robert A. Armitage and Alexander Wilson., Jerry Cohen, Burns & Levinson, LLP, of Boston, MA, for amicus curiae End Software Patents., Michael J. Songer, Crowell & Moring, LLP, of Washington, DC, for amicus curiae Federal Circuit Bar Association.   Of counsel on the brief was Edward R. Reines, Federal Circuit Bar Association, of Washington, DC., Maxim H. Waldbaum, Schiff Hardin LLP, of New York, NY, for amicus curiae Fédération Internationale Des Conseils En Propriété Industrielle., Michael R. McCarthy, Parsons Behle & Latimer, of Salt Lake City, UT, for amicus curiae Professor Lee A. Hollaar., Howard L. Speight, of Houston, TX, for amicus curiae Houston Intellectual Property Law Association., Eric E. Bensen, Paul, Hastings, Janofsky & Walker LLP, of New York, New York, for amicus curiae Intellectual Property Owners Association.   Of counsel on the brief were Robert P. Hayter and Steven W. Miller, Intellectual Property Owners Association, of Washington, DC. Of counsel was Herbert C. Wamsley, Intellectual Property Owners Association, of Washington, DC., Christopher Landau, Kirkland & Ellis LLP, of Washington, DC, for amicus curiae International Business Machines Corporation.   With him on the brief were Gregory S. Arovas and Timothy K. Gilman, of New York, NY. Of counsel on the brief were David J. Kappos, IBM Corporation, of Armonk, New York, and John R. Thomas, Georgetown University Law Center, of Washington, DC., Jack E. Haken, Philips Intellectual Property and Standards, of Briarcliff Manor, NY, for amicus curiae Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V. With him on the brief was Todd Holmbo., Mark A. Lemley, Stanford Law School, of Stanford, California, for amici curiae law professors John R. Allison, et al.   Of counsel on the brief were Michael Risch, West Virginia University College of Law, of Morgantown, WV, and R. Polk Wagner, University of Pennsylvania Law School, of Philadelphia, PA., Joshua D. Sarnoff, Washington College of Law, American University, of Washington, DC, for amici curiae law professors Ralph D. Clifford, et al., Todd L. Juneau, Juneau Partners Patent & Trademark Firm, PLLC, of Alexandria, VA, for amicus curiae Jason V. Morgan., James R. Myers, Ropes & Gray LLP, of Washington, DC, for amici curiae Pacific Life Insurance Company, et al.   With him on the brief was Brandon H. Stroy, of New York, NY., Robert H. Tiller, Red Hat, Inc., of Raleigh, NC, for amicus curiae Red Hat, Inc. With him on the brief was Richard E. Fontana., Charles R. Macedo, Amster, Rothstein & Ebenstein LLP, of New York, NY, for amici curiae Reserve Management Corporation, et al.   With him on the brief were Anthony F. Lo Cicero and Jung S. Hahm., Katherine K. Lutton, Fish & Richardson P.C., of Redwood City, CA, for amicus curiae SAP America, Inc. With her on the brief were John A. Dragseth, of Minneapolis, Minnesota, and Christian A. Chu, of Washington, DC. Of counsel on the brief were Kevin R. Hamel and Gerard Wissing, SAP America, Inc., of Newtown Square, PA., Scott E. Bain, Software & Information Industry Association, of Washington, DC, for amicus curiae Software & Information Industry Association., Michael J. Swope, Woodcock Washburn LLP, of Seattle, WA, for amicus curiae Washington State Patent Law Association.   With him on the brief was Grzegorz S. Plichta.   Of counsel on the brief were Peter J. Knudsen, Nastech Pharmaceutical Co., Inc., of Bothell, Washington, and Dale C. Barr, Washington State Patent Law Association, of Seattle, WA., R. Carl Moy, William Mitchell College of Law, of St. Paul, MN, for amicus curiae William Mitchell College of Law Intellectual Property Institute.   With him on the brief was Jay A. Erstling., Christopher J. Wright, Harris, Wiltshire & Grannis LLP, of Washington, DC, for amici curiae Yahoo!   Inc., et al.   With him on the brief were Timothy J. Simeone and Joseph C. Cavender., Gregory Aharonian, of San Francisco, CA, as amicus curiae, pro se., Kevin Emerson Collins, Indiana University School of Law, Bloomington, of Bloomington, IN, as amicus curiae, pro se., Roberta J. Morris, of Menlo Park, CA, as amicus curiae, pro se.


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